500 ANOS DA REFORMA PROTESTANTE E AS MULHERES

“Sem o apoio das mulheres, a Reforma não teria acontecido”. Esta é a convicção de Martin H. Jung, após fazer uma pesquisa sobre mulheres da época da Reforma. Ele escreve ter feito descobertas muito interessantes. A primeira foi que, para encontrar algo sobre as mulheres da época da Reforma, teve que vasculhar arquivos de difícil acesso, enquanto as informações sobre os reformadores masculinos eram abundantes e há muito tempo conhecidas. A segunda descoberta foi que as mulheres não foram apenas esposas que apoiavam seus maridos e cuidavam da família, mas também conheciam bem a Bíblia e foram destemidas na divulgação das ideias da Reforma. Por causa do seu empenho e sabedoria, territórios inteiros tornaram-se protestantes. Não obstante a imagem depreciativa que se tinha das mulheres na época, havia aquelas que, por causa da sua fé, não temeram nem gozações, nem perseguição.

Com a doutrina do “sacerdócio geral de todos os crentes”, deduzido principalmente de 1 Pedro 2.9, Lutero contribuiu para a reabilitação e valorização da mulher. Mas, para esta valorização também ajudou o conceito de Deus: “Deus é o Deus que se dá aos seres humanos quando uma mulher fica grávida e dá à luz ao Filho de Deus.” E ainda: Homem e mulher fazem parte da boa criação de Deus e ambos foram criados à imagem de Deus (Gn 1), e, pelo Batismo, vale o que o apóstolo Paulo escreve em Gálatas 3.26-28: homem e mulher são um em Jesus Cristo.

Baseando-se no testemunho bíblico, Lutero pôde formular: “Todos nós somos conjuntamente consagrados sacerdotes pelo batismo.”

Lutero prezava a mulher como educadora dos filhos, pois considerava esta tarefa “a obra mais nobre e preciosa do mundo”. Ele diz que pai e mãe são responsáveis pela educação. Consequentemente, o pai não deveria esquivar-se de também participar de tarefas, que fazem parte da criação dos filhos, como embalar o bebê e trocar as fraldas. Visto que a educação era importante para meninos e meninas, Lutero empenhou-se pela criação de escolas para ambos os sexos.

O conceito da Igreja medieval sobre a mulher estava marcado por um dualismo acentuado. De um lado estava a mulher celibatária nos conventos, cujo status religioso era considerado o mais elevado e perfeito. No lado oposto estava a mulher casada, considerada quase que um ser de segunda ordem. Numa procissão, por exemplo, as mulheres formavam o último grupo, e, durante certos períodos, como da menstruação e da gravidez, não podiam participar da ceia da comunhão, nem frequentar a igreja.

A Reforma mudou estes conceitos. Lutero defendia que Deus instituiu o matrimônio, enquanto o status da monja, bem como o do monge, eram invenção humana. No matrimônio, homem e mulher teriam a mesma dignidade, ainda que a mulher deveria ser submissa ao homem. Gestações muito seguidas não deveriam ser problema, uma vez que a tarefa da mulher era gestar filhos.

Nos princípios teológicos da Reforma havia, desde o início, um potencial muito alto para a emancipação e participação da mulher na Igreja protestante. O sacerdócio geral de todos os crentes também poderia ter aberto um espaço para o sacerdócio da mulher. Uma outra porta poderia ter sido a doutrina da justificação pela fé e a consequente igualdade de homem e mulher em Cristo. Estas portas também foram usadas por algumas mulheres. Mas houve estagnação das iniciativas, porque, a partir da ambiguidade de posições de Lutero, predominou, por um bom tempo, a visão da inferioridade da mulher.

A Reforma não criou ministérios para a mulher. Talvez, até por motivos práticos. Um deles era o número grande de homens que se candidatava ao ministério pastoral. Pois muitos monges, egressos dos mosteiros, queriam ser pregadores. Na busca por emprego, os homens, naturalmente, levariam vantagem sobre as mulheres. Um outro motivo pode ter sido o receio de que a aceitação de um sacerdócio da mulher pudesse levar consigo muito dinamite às já numerosas disputas reformatórias.

Foram necessários 300 anos para criar um diaconato feminino e 400 anos para um pastorado feminino em Igrejas Luteranas.

A fixação da atividade da mulher ao ambiente doméstico trouxe sofrimento para muitas mulheres no decorrer dos séculos. Pois com isto não foram atingidas somente as mulheres solteiras, mas também aquelas que se sentiram chamadas para contribuírem com seus talentos para o bem da sociedade. A Reforma luterana incentivou a criação de escolas também para meninas, para que pudessem ler a Bíblia e educar bem seus filhos. Mas não lhes foi permitido avançar para o ensino superior e exercer uma profissão fora de casa.

No século XIX, algumas mulheres se opuseram a este enclausuramento, transgredindo as regras. Houve vitórias. Em 1890, a primeira mulher recebeu a licença para estudar Economia Política, Política Social e Estatística Social, na Universidade em Berlim. Foi Elisabeth Gnauck-Kühne25. Para a maioria das pessoas da sociedade de então, esta atitude foi um escândalo, porque mulheres que estudavam eram “monstruosidades”, pois, segundo opinião difundida, a atividade intelectual prejudicava as funções biológicas da gestação e criação de filhos. Oficialmente, mulheres na Alemanha só puderam estudar numa Faculdade a partir de 1909.

No ano de 1800 nasceram Theodor Fliedner e Friederike Münster, que, mais tarde, casaram. Este casal reconheceu o potencial da mulher para um trabalho diaconal e catequético. Reconheceram também que isto exigia formação. Assim, mulheres foram preparadas para as profissões de enfermagem e educação infantil. Até então só havia professores homens. Theodor Fliedner se auto-denominou de “o renovador do ministério apostólico das diaconisas”. As mulheres que se dedicariam ao cuidado de doentes, foram chamadas de diaconisas. As primeiras foram consagradas em 1844, em Kaiserswerth.

Fliedner havia descoberto, não só duas ocupações e profissões que deram realização profissional para inúmeras mulheres no decorrer da história, mas também um ministério eclesiástico para elas. Infelizmente, Fliedner não conseguiu integrá-lo na estrutura eclesiástica. No entanto, ao assumirem uma responsabilidade permanente e pública na Igreja, as diaconisas sempre se entenderam como mulheres que exercem um ministério eclesiástico. No auge do desenvolvimento, na virada do século, o número de diaconisas foi uma vez maior do que o dos pastores, na Alemanha.

O diaconato masculino foi resgatado na Igreja Luterana na Alemanha por Johann Hinrich Wichern (1808-1881). Este formou diáconos e também os consagrou para o ministério eclesiástico. Mulheres foram aceitas, mais tarde, como diáconas. No Brasil, as primeiras assumiram o ministério em 1976.

 

Fonte: http://www.luteranos.com.br

 

 

 

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